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What is Perovskite?

Perovskites are a class of materials that exhibit a wide range of useful properties, including their ability to convert light into electricity.

Why Perovskite Solar Cells?

Most of the solar cells available commercially are Silicon based. While the scale up in commercial demand for Silicon cells has dropped their price significantly over the years, these cells are reaching their limit of their energy conversion efficiency of 30% (Shockley-Queisser limit) beyond which efficiency cannot be improved.

To meet increasing demands of renewable energy, the solar cell industry needs next-generation of photovoltaic innovations. Perovksite - Silicon tandems are one of the most promising solutions to this problem as they offer added energy conversion efficiency by laying perovskite layers on top of Silicon cells to increase their light absorption and conversion capability. The low cost of perovskite materials means more electricity across the lifetime of the solar cell with less added costs - giving more value for money for the end user. Moreover, the technologies developed by ANU make it easy for manufacturers to add perovskite deposition capabilities that are compatible with their existing manufacturing pipelines.


The Perovskite Group at ANU is one of the leaders in developing high-efficiency Perovskite-Silicon tandem solar cells. We are looking to partner with both Silicon and Perovskite solar cell manufacturers looking to move into tandem technologies. Our breadth of capabilities and breakthrough innovations position us well to bring out the next-generation of solar cells that are necessary to shift the world towards a greener future

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Current and predicted levelized cost of electricity of Silicon, Perovskite (only), and Perovskite-Silicon tandem cells in utility (top) and residential (bottom) scenarios.


Our Technologies

Provisional Patent

Multi-junction perovskite/Si tandem solar cell incorporating dopant-free passivating contact based Si technology


Perovksite Photovoltaic Manufacturers looking to enter the Perovskite-Silicon tandem space.


The invention is a design for a multi-junction Perovskite - Silicon tandem photovoltaic cell that removes complexities like high temperature, toxic and difficult to control doping processes involved in standard homojunction Silicon cells. The innovation utilises metallic compounds that facilitate transport of charges generated in the crystalline Silicon sub-cell instead of doped silicon layers.

The use of charge transport layers removes the requirements of doping processes and high costs that come with setting up production infrastructure for it. The cell has a Perovksite sub-cell on top of the Silicon sub-cell which can be integrated without the use of an interconnection layer, improving light management and easy contact.


The technology offers a low-cost, simple to fabricate, and potentially highly efficient structure for Perovskite-Silicon tandems. For Perovskite PV manufacturers it offers an opportunity to expand into tandems without significant investment in Silicon doping infrastructure and know-how.


The technology has rapidly progressed from an efficiency of 11% in 2017 to 20% in 2022 with rapid progress expected in the coming years through efforts in interface engineering.

Provisional Patent

Multi-junction tandem solar cell incorporating poly-Si/SiO2 passivating contact Si solar cell and perovskite solar cell

This invention involves method of making high performance Si/perovskite tandem solar cells by incorporating double-side poly-Si/SiO2 passivating contact Si solar cells as the bottom subcell and a perovskite solar cell as top subcell. The fabrication processes of the Si solar cell, the tandem solar cell structure as well as the fabrication process of hole transport layer and the perovskite layers of the perovskite solar cells as well as the surface passivation are novel and key to the high performance of the tandem device.​

The advantages of the technology in this invention include:

The tandem design of this technology enables significantly higher solar cell efficiency compared to the marketing-dominating Si solar cell design, reducing the solar electricity cost.

The poly-Si/SiO2 passivating contact is a commercial relevant technology, and considered to be the one of the most promising market-dominating PV technology in the coming few years. Adding perovskite subcell on top of the poly-Si/SiO2 passivating contact Si solar cell further improves its efficiency and reduces the cost, therefore attracting enormous interests from the industry.

The novel hole transport layer stack developed in this innovation induces minimal parasitic absorption loss and is stable due to the removal of dopants. This enables both high efficiency and great stability of the tandem device simultaneously.

PCT Patent

In-Situ Nitrogen-Doped Titanium Oxides for use as Electron Transport Layers (ETL) in Optoelectronic Devices

The invention provides a method for fabricating large-area, high-quality nitrogen-doped titanium oxide thin films for use as electron transport layers in perovskite solar cells. 

The technology uses a two-step sputter deposition method and overcomes challenges associated with current methods of fabricating titanium oxides based on wet solution processes. 

The highly controllable and scalable process poses many advantages allowing for ease of fabricating high-quality nitrogen-doped titanium oxide films with suitable work function, tuneable transmittance and conductivity. 

Certified efficiency of over 23.3%

ANU is seeking opportunities to co-develop and license the technology to a suitable industry partner.

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